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行業動態 Industry trends

深度解讀超聲波流速傳感器

2018-03-28

  超聲波的概念

  從物理學的角度來看,聲波屬于聲音的類別,是機械波中的一種,人類能聽見的聲波,頻率范圍為16Hz至20KHz。若聲波的頻率低于16Hz時就叫做次聲波,如果高于20KHz,我們則稱為超聲波聲波。超聲波因為其最低頻率大約等于人的最高聽覺頻率而得名。超聲波方向性能好,穿透能力強,易于獲得較集中的聲能,在水中傳播距離遠,可用于測量距離和速度、清洗、焊接、碎石、殺菌消毒等。聲波按原理劃分,可以分為檢測超聲和功率超聲。在醫學、軍事、工農業上有很多的應用,聲波是物體作機械振動,傳播能量的一種形式,所謂振動是指物質的質點在其平衡位置附近進行的往返運動。比如,鼓面經敲擊后,鼓面上下振動,振動狀態通過空氣,液體或者固體向周圍傳播,就產生聲波。高于20KHZ頻率的聲波,人類是聽不見的,人們把其叫做超聲。超聲和可聽見聲其實是是一致的,它們的主要特點都是一種機械振動,是能量的傳播形式。不同點是超聲頻率高,波長短,在一定范圍內,直線傳播具有優良的束射性和方向性,目前腹部超聲成象所用的頻率范圍在2MHZ到5MHz之間,最常用的為3NHZ到3.5MHz(質點每秒振動1次為1Hz,1MHz=10^6Hz,即每秒振動達100萬次)

  超聲波的特性

  1、超聲波在液體中傳播時,在界面上能產生強烈的沖擊和空化現象。

  2、超聲波可以在氣體、液體、固體、固熔體等介質中有效傳播。

  3、超聲波會產生反射、干涉、疊加和共振現象。

  4、聲波可傳播較強的能量。

  超聲波效應的利用

  超聲檢驗

  超聲波頻率高波長短,具有較好的方向性,能穿透不透明物質,超聲波探傷、測厚、測距、遙控和超聲成像技術就是利用這一特性而做成。超聲成像是利用超聲波呈現不透明物內部形象的技術 。把從換能器發出的超聲波經聲透鏡聚焦在不透明試樣上,從試樣透出的超聲波攜帶了被照部位的信息(如對聲波的反射、吸收和散射的能力),經聲透鏡匯聚在壓電接收器上,所得電信號輸入放大器,利用掃描系統可把不透明試樣的形象顯示在熒光屏上。上述裝置稱為超聲顯微鏡。超聲成像技術已在醫療檢查方面獲得普遍應用,在微電子器件制造業中用來對大規模集成電路進行檢查,在材料科學中用來顯示合金中不同組分的區域和晶粒間界等。聲全息術是利用超聲波的干涉原理記錄和重現不透明物的立體圖像的聲成像技術,其原理與光波的全息術基本相同,只是記錄手段不同而已(見全息術)。用同一超聲信號源激勵兩個放置在液體中的換能器,它們分別發射兩束相干的超聲波:一束透過被研究的物體后成為物波,另一束作為參考波。物波和參考波在液面上相干疊加形成聲全息圖,用激光束照射聲全息圖,利用激光在聲全息圖上反射時產生的衍射效應而獲得物的重現像,通常用攝像機和電視機作實時觀察。

  超聲處理

  利用超聲的機械作用、空化作用、熱效應和化學效應,可進行超聲焊接、鉆孔、固體的粉碎、乳化 、脫氣、除塵、去鍋垢、清洗、滅菌、促進化學反應和進行生物學研究等,在工礦業、農業、醫療等各個部門獲得了廣泛應用。

  超聲流量流速傳感器中的應用

  超聲波傳感器利用超聲波檢測技術,將檢測到的超聲波轉化為電信號的傳感器,一般分為兩類:

  第一類是利用流速的變化的時間差法,頻率差法,相位差法,其基本原理都是通過檢測超聲波在順逆流的液體中的傳播時差來反映流速所以又稱之為傳播速度差法。時差法和頻差法消除了溫度對檢測的影響,測量精度高,廣泛被使用;

  第二類是利用超聲波隨流速而發生偏移,而反映的流速,稱之為多普勒超聲波流速法。向明渠的液體中發射超聲波,超聲波在流動的液體中載上流速,再用接收探頭也就是換能器將信息傳送到微處理器上進行數據處理,最后得到流速。

  超聲波傳感器是非接觸測量儀器,不阻礙液體的流動,具有很高的測量精度。

版權所有© 蘇州斯威高科信息技術有限公司
蘇ICP備17051996號-1
3分赛车

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